The Federal Govt doesn't borrow in order to spend, and it does not need taxes in order to spend. When the Treasury goes to spend, it tells its bank, the Federal Reserve, to credit (turn a number into a larger number) the reserve account of a bank (banks all keep "reserve accounts" with the Federal Reserve, which they use to settle payments), and then the bank credits the checking account of whoever is receiving the payment. So, the Fed credits a bank's reserves and a bank credits a customer's account. Venezuela's hyperinflation had nothing to do with "printing money." No hyperinflation in history was ever caused by Sovereign spending. Venezuela pegged its currency to its biggest export, petroleum, and when the price of oil fell, so did the Bolivar. So, not diversifying their economy was a major contributor. In addition, Venezuela racked up a huge debt denominated in US dollars, which caused the Bolivar to become worthless. Add into the mix the corruption within its government and US & other foreign sanctions . . . hyperinflation. All fiat currency has value because it is, under penalty of law, the only means of satisfying the tax debt imposed by the Federal Govt. To the issuing Govt, the value of the currency is consistent. In the US, one dollar is always = $1, for example. It says so on each of those Federal Reserve notes you might have in your pocket. As the exclusive issuer of the US dollar, the US Govt can never run out of dollars to spend, can never go bankrupt, and can afford anything denominated in US dollars. The only constraint to spending is inflation, but spending only becomes inflationary when full employment of real resources is achieved. When that occurs, as it did during WWII, taxes can be raised, bonds sold, and, if needed, rationing of items can be imposed - all to reduce aggregate demand and mitigate inflation. One important point needs to be understood. The Federal Govt is nothing like a household. A Federal "debt" results in a profit to the private sector, you & me. A Federal "surplus" results in a private sector "loss."