Racism is evil any where and by anyone. I have not personally experienced seeing applications and resumes tossed out because of the color of the applicants skin but I am sure it happens. Any where it happens it should be investigated and the perpetrators prosecuted if racism is what is going on. It's against the law and should not be allowed. If you witness it you should speak up but just because you don't get an interview doesn't mean you got discounted because of the color of your skin. As an example, teaching is a hard profession to get into. For each opening there is often 200 or more applicants in certain areas and there is no way the people hiring can interview 200 people, the pool must be cut some how as long as it's not by race, gender, or any other discriminatory manner. Your next point, when a kid's entire family are in a gang, that is a horrible situation to be in. First of all he/she is very lucky to have Mom, Dad, and their grand parents alive if they are all in a gang but being dealt that hand is an extremely unfair start to life. Statistically that child will follow in their parents footsteps but we and they should not give up. It is those situations that need mentor ship programs the most. I have seen personally members of the communities I have lived in fight to separate themselves from that culture. It's not easy but with help it is possible. I have seen many family tree changing events in my communities where students turned their back on gangs and drugs so they could be not only the first person in their family to graduate high school but to be the first person in their family to get into college. It was a beautiful thing to witness and be a part of. Those students will go on to change the world but true it may not be in the technology and STEM fields but there are many other options such as the various branches of the medical field, liberal arts, business fields, or starting their own business. The focus on STEM is because those are the fields of the future and if we are to compete with China, India, Japan, etc then we need young people to take an interest in STEM fields. Not everyone needs to be a computer programmer, we will always need plumbers, electricians, contractors, etc. As an example I use an electrician who works 10 hour days 7 days a week and makes over $250,000/year, way more than I do. You don't have to have an advanced degree to provide a very comfortable life for your family.